Existing Building Services

L&S Energy Services provides a wide range of existing building energy-related services to our clients. We have completed energy efficiency, conservation, and planning consulting activities for facilities ranging in size from small commercial buildings, to multi-building complexes to large industrial plants. We provide services to the multifamily, commercial, institutional, and industrial markets.

Our staff has a strong background in energy systems, efficiency opportunities, engineering-based analysis, system design, and operations. We also recognize that financial and facility constraints and strategic business consideration often play important roles in energy project decisions. Our projects are typically staffed with a mix of senior and junior level staff under the direction of a principal of the firm, thereby enabling L&S to provide cost-effective and efficient services.

As needed L&S will utilize short-term data monitoring equipment, instrumentation, and data loggers to obtain equipment operating characteristics. This enables our project staff to fully understand the operating sequences and performance of the building’s energy systems as we complete the development of recommendations and energy savings analysis. We use a mix of lighting loggers, motor loggers, airflow meters, power meters, amperage meters, temperature and humidity loggers.

Commercial Energy Audits

The founders of L&S Energy Services, Inc. have been leading the charge in energy audits since the 1970s. We have performed energy studies throughout the US and for federal agencies in 32 countries worldwide. Dennis Landsberg is the Secretary of ASHRAE TC 7.6 – Building Energy Systems and is a voting member of ASHRAE SSPC 100 – Energy Efficiency of Existing Buildings and SPC 211 – Building Energy Audits. He was also lead author of the ASHRAE Energy Efficiency Guides for Existing Buildings.

L&S has experience in all types of commercial and government buildings including office, retail, assembly, warehouse, shop, restaurant, penitentiary and houses of worship.

Typical Approach to Task Work Order Process

The following describes the typical approach used by L&S in the provision of general technical assistance services. This approach is modified for different types of services as needed based on the specifics of the client’s needs and project scope.

Task 1: Site Scoping and Screening Visits: The site scoping and screening visit is a critical part of the energy analysis process. The purpose of this is primarily to gather data for the development of a work scope. This meeting serves as an opportunity to discuss the proposed project with the owner and to develop the scope of work. If the project is specific to an existing building(s) then we feel it is critical to complete the scoping meeting at the subject facility to enable our staff to see the building and equipment first hand to gain a better understanding of the needs and potential solutions.

Task 2: Identify and Review Measures: If the project is an energy analysis of a new or existing facility a preliminary list of energy conservation measures to be analyzed is developed. It should be recognized and communicated to the owner that other measures may be developed as the work progresses. If the project involves retro-commissioning, a list of equipment to be retro-commissioned is identified.

Task 3: Develop a Scope of Services: The list of alternatives to be analyzed and/or equipment to be tested forms the basis of a work scope, which may include ancillary services such as measure verification. The work scope is developed, priced, and submitted to the client for review and approval. Work begins when a notice to proceed has been issued.

Task 4: Perform Field Survey: If the project involves an existing building, the energy bills are summarized. A field survey shall be scheduled to gather building data for the energy analyses to be performed. If instrumentation is to be installed, data is gathered at this time to develop an installation plan. If the building has an energy management system it will be reviewed and trending will be established for systems to be analyzed. This is especially important for retro-commissioning projects.

Task 5: Provide Engineering Assistance: Some energy conservation measures may require the provision of assistance to the owner’s design team. Our technical analysis team has the ability to provide these services, and has the in-house resources of professionals to provide assistance at a moment’s notice. We have experience with many unique systems including, but not limited to fuel cells, solar systems, wind energy systems, geothermal heat pumps, gas engine heat pumps and cool storage systems. L&S also has extensive experience in helping owners qualify for LEED, LEED EB, Energy Star or the Green Building tax credit.

Task 6: Conduct Energy Analyses: Each conservation measure will be analyzed using spreadsheets or modeled using a computer based modeling tool appropriate for the required analysis. The technical assistance team has extensive experience with eQUEST, DOE-2, and TREAT, in addition to in-house spreadsheet energy analysis software. Operating schedules and set points shall be developed from data gathered in the field survey if the project involves an existing building. Utility costs shall be determined through review of utility tariffs. A payback period will be calculated for each measure analyzed. L&S can also provide life cycle costing analysis if required by the building owner, using software such as DOE’s BLCC5.

Task 7: Prepare or Review Cost Estimates: The proposed cost of each energy conservation alternative is as important as the energy analysis in determining the cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures. The cost, or incremental cost, of each design alternative will be estimated or reviewed, as agreed upon in the scope of work. We have considerable experience in providing cost estimating on our previous energy analysis projects.

Task 8: Prepare Report: The results of the analyses will be assembled into a report, and submitted to NYSERDA and the owner on a timely basis. This report shall be designed to be a working document that can be used by the building owner to make informed decisions. Descriptions of energy conservation measures (ECMs) will contain enough information to permit the owner or their representatives to understand what is being proposed. The report shall also include basic energy and facility data.

Task 9: Follow-Up Services: Follow-up services shall be performed as required by the building owner to discuss recommendations and to answer questions. L&S will also assist NYSERDA with data collection to support data base analyses and program evaluation.

Educational Buildings

1 L&S has extensive experience in the full gamut of education facilities from nursery schools, to K-12, to colleges and universities. Educational institutions are in their buildings for the long term and therefore take a different view of energy planning and conservation than the builders of spec office buildings. Many of our college and university clients have signed the Clinton Climate Challenge and are working actively to lower their carbon footprint.

Evaluations completed include:

  • Window and envelope insulation improvements
  • Lighting and control upgrades
  • End of life boiler replacements
  • Control upgrades such as replacing pneumatic control systems with BMS, hot water reset and demand control ventilation.
  • Photovoltaic systems
  • Install vending machine misers
  • Geothermal heat pump system
  • Evaluate heat recovery AHUs
  • Controls on kitchen hood
  • Healthcare Services

    L&S has extensive experience in hospital, medical school, nursing homes, and medical buildings. Many of these facilities operate 24/7 and have specific energy and air quality requirements for operating rooms, laboratories, etc.

    Industrial Facilities

    L&S Energy Services has provided energy and process consulting to many manufacturing and industrial clients. Our industrial process assessments have included both field-based analytical and instrumented (utilizing data loggers and measurement instrumentation) studies for numerous clients including NYSERDA, Pacific Gas & Electric, National Grid, Northeast Utilities, the U.S. State Department, Philadelphia Electric, New York State Pollution Prevention Institute and New England Electric Systems.

    Industrial audits require a more diverse engineering background than commercial building audits. For industrial plants, the processes will be charted for material and energy flows. All processes involve movement, and perhaps forming of materials and motor measures are usually important. Many processes involve adding or removing heat from the product. “Pinch analysis” can be used to ensure that heat transfer is used to minimize the amount of new energy that must be used for these activities. Scheduling is also reviewed to identify idling equipment that is wasting energy, or to determine whether changes in schedule can reduce the peak demand of the plant. Lean manufacturing is incorporated with lean energy technologies if desired by the client. For data centers, FlexTech and IPE can be combined to capture IT energy efficiency improvements.

    Many of the energy savings concepts, such as heat recovery, appear simple to apply. However, not all industrial plants have continual or easily coordinated process flows, nor are the plants always designed with layouts that facilitate energy conservation. The presence of time-of-use rates and the economics of multiple shifts make the problem even more complex. We have been fortunate to work on many challenging industrial projects as noted below:

    Industrial Process Energy Analysis and Monitoring by System Type

    Industrial Ventilation
    Injection Molding
    Machine Shops
    Waste Heat Incinerators
    Industrial Heat Pumps
    Microwave Drying
    Rod and Bar Mill
    Beer Brewing
    Electronics Manufacture
    SCR Motor Starter
    as Drum Dryer
    Steam Distribution Systems
    Flash Freezing Doughnuts
    Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle
    Variable Frequency Drives
    Bulk Milk Cooler Heat Recovery
    Mechanical Vapor Recompression
    Twin Bed Industrial Furnace
    Energy Management and Control
    Domestic Water Heat Recovery

    Multifamily Services

    1L&S is a NYSERDA Multifamily Performance Program Partner for New and Existing Buildings. To become a partner a firm must go through a NYSERDA qualification and selection process. We have completed energy reduction plans (feasibility studies) for over 33 multifamily buildings encompassing over 2,100 residential apartments. These projects have been completed across the State from New York City to Buffalo.

    Our experience in the multifamily sector includes evaluation of:

  • One pipe and two pipe steam heating systems
  • Hydronic (hot water) heating systems and distribution
  • No. 2, 4, and 6 fuel-oil and natural gas boilers
  • Electrically heated spaces
  • Central plants
  • Central chillers, rooftop DX and packaged units, window air conditioners
  • Chilled water pumping systems and cooling towers
  • Absorption chillers
  • In-unit heating and cooling controls
  • Domestic hot water systems
  • Building envelope improvements and air sealing
  • Exhaust air systems
  • In-unit and common area lighting
  • Exterior lighting
  • Lighting controls
  • Energy Star® appliances
  • Elevator and conveyance systems
  • Parking garages and structures
  • Data Centers


    L&S Energy Services has been performing energy analysis work on data centers for many years. This has included benchmarking data centers for Lawrence Berkley Laboratories, energy studies under PG&E’s Savings by Design program and a study of a major data center for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For NYSERDA, L&S currently provides Data Center Technical Review services through the IPE. We have also supported NYSERDA by participating in the IT M&V Working Group and we continue to collaborate with NYSERDA on Data Center equipment efficiency and savings calculations.

    L&S has been supporting NYSERDA’s Data Center efficiency efforts through the IPE Program since the offering was initially rolled-out. In addition, L&S has supported other clients with Data Center efficiency analysis. Data Center efficiency improvements can be realized both in computing/storage/network equipment efficiencies and also in ancillary support systems (cooling, economizer, controls, etc.). The projects that L&S proposed project staff have completed for NYSERDA and others span all of these technologies and efficiency improvements.

    Dr. Landsberg has lectured and presented seminars on Data Center Efficiency for both the Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) and American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC).